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All About Malware

Malware is commonly known for malicious software. It is a code delivered by a network to interfere with the normal functioning of a computer. After entering a computer, it can infect, steal, explore or conduct any virtual attack as commanded by the attacker.

Types of Malware

The most common types of malware are:


Ransomware prevents you from accessing your data until you pay a ransom to the attacker. Even if you pay the ransom, there is no guarantee that it will work out. Your device may not work smoothly or may get attacked again. An example of Ransomware is RYUK.

File-less Malware

File-less Malware makes changes to the local files of the operating system without your permission. The OS identifies the edited files as legitimate and valid files. Due to that, the anti-virus software couldn't recognize the threats. They are ten times more successful than regular malware attacks because of their stealthiness. An example of file-less malware is Astaroth.


Spyware steals your activity data or information without your knowledge or consent. Your activity data may include passwords, pin-codes, secret payments, or messages. Spyware is not only limited to your desktop browser but can also run on your mobile phone. An example of spyware is DarkHotel.


Adware shows you unwanted and annoying ads. It tracks your internet surfing activities and determines which ad you may be interested in and serves you that ad. An example of Adware is Fireball.


A trojan disguises itself as pleasing or valuable software. You may think that it's a game or some other fun or desirable software and download the file from the internet. But after installing it on your computer, it will take control of your computer for wicked purposes. Emotet is an example of a Trojan.


Keyloggers monitor your user activity. They enter your computer through malicious downloads and steal your passwords, pin codes, or other sensitive information. An example of a keylogger is Olympic Vision.


Bots do automated tasks on command. They are helpful for indexing search engines and even used for other legitimate purposes. But they can also take the form of self-propagating malware that can connect back to the server when used for wicked purposes. An example of a bot is Echobot.

Mobile malware

Mobile malware infects your mobile devices. It enters your mobile phone through malicious downloads or phishing. It is a severe threat for rooted devices because they lack default protection provided by original operating systems. An example of mobile malware is Triada.


It provides the attacker remote control of your device with full administrative rights. The attacker can inject them into your applications, kernels, hypervisors, or firmware without your knowledge. They can also enter your device over phishing, downloads, or from shred devices. An example of a rootkit is Zacinlo.


A worm replicates itself and spreads by a network. It doesn't need any human interaction to duplicate itself. It doesn't even need to attach itself to software to cause damage. An example of Worm is Stuxnet.

How malware harm an individual and a company entirely?

Since its birth, malware has learned many methods to attack any individual. Malware attacks include phishing emails, text messages, and ads on popular sites, etc. They enter a system when an individual downloads files from unknown sites, clicks on unverified links or uses an infected USB driver.

Now, what happens if a computer gets infected by malware?

1 Your personal and sensitive information may get stolen.

2 It can slow down your computer.

3 It can disrupt your daily activities.

4 It can restrict you from accessing your files.

Malware is also causing severe damage to a company or organization. It breaks the security infrastructure of a system, posing various security problems to the company. Some of them are listed below:

1 Malware can crush the networks of an organization and also disturb the business works.

2 Malware can access all the sensitive information of a company by raiding the server machine.

3 In some cases, malware can also cause hardware failure.

4 Malware like Ransomware can invade a company putting its stability and reputation at stake. It stops them from accessing their files until they pay a ransom.

5 Malware like worms spreads throughout a network and causes damage to not just one employee but an entire organization.

The above depicts only a few of the threats caused by malware.

What needs to be done to protect your system from malware

Installation of anti-malware software

Anti-malware software is excellent at recognizing and eliminating various types of malware. It might not find every lurking malware/virus in your system. But performing regular checks with this software will reduce the chances of getting infected by any malware/virus.

Don't click on unknown links or pop-ups.

While surfing the net, some pop-up windows may appear in front of you. These pop-up windows may carry malware that will enter your system if you click on them. They may show you some attractive and exciting deals tempting/inviting you to click on the links. Don't fall for this sort of trick. Make sure you don't click inside the pop-up window and close it.

Always keep your software and systems updated.

It is crucial to keep your systems updated. It will prevent your computer from getting infected by malware/viruses. Check your OS and anti-virus software regularly for new updates and install them as early as possible.

Limit your sharing of files

Some sites and applications allow you to share your files with others easily. These sites or applications are not that efficient in detecting or preventing malware from entering your system. Always be careful while receiving files. Malware/viruses may disguise themself as a song, movie, or videos, etc.

Avoid opening unknown email attachments or images.

You should be cautious if you receive an email from an unknown person. They may be just spam or may contain secretly harmful malware/viruses. Report them as spam and avoid clicking them no matter how interesting/exciting they are.


In Conclusion, privacy on the internet is very crucial. Cyber hackers on the internet are waiting for a chance to steal someone's material. If people could protect themselves and use the right software, that would be much more trustworthy. Also, it would be harder to have personal data stolen from them. To learn more about such concepts and practical case scenarios, give this book a read...Read Now

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